Basic knowledge of Laptop for Beginners Tips

Laptops Brands

What is a Laptop

A laptop, short for “notebook computer,” is a portable and compact personal computer that’s designed to be easily carried and used on the go. Laptops are a popular choice for individuals, professionals, students, and anyone who needs computing power in a mobile form factor. Here are some key characteristics and features of laptops:

Portability: Laptops are designed to be lightweight and compact, making them easy to transport. They typically come with a built-in screen and keyboard, eliminating the need for external peripherals.

Integrated Components: Laptops house all the essential components of a computer, including a CPU (Central Processing Unit), RAM (Random Access Memory), storage (usually an SSD or HDD), a display, keyboard, touchpad or trackpad, and built-in speakers.

Battery-Powered: Laptops have a built-in battery that allows them to operate without being plugged into an electrical outlet for a certain period. Battery life varies depending on usage and the laptop’s specifications.

Operating System: Laptops run operating systems like Windows, macOS (for Apple laptops), or Linux, which provide a user interface for running applications and managing files.

Connectivity: Laptops come equipped with various ports and wireless capabilities, including USB ports, HDMI ports, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and sometimes even Ethernet ports, allowing users to connect to external devices and networks.

Variety of Sizes and Types: Laptops come in different sizes and types to cater to various needs. This includes traditional clamshell laptops, ultrabooks (thin and lightweight laptops), 2-in-1 laptops (which can function as both laptops and tablets), and gaming laptops (designed for gaming with high-end components).

Customizable: Some laptops allow users to upgrade or replace certain components like RAM and storage, while others have fixed configurations.

Use Cases: Laptops are used for a wide range of tasks, including web browsing, word processing, multimedia consumption, gaming, content creation, programming, and more.

Price Range: Laptops come in various price ranges, from budget-friendly options to high-end, premium models.

Accessories: Users can enhance their laptop experience with accessories like external monitors, keyboards, mice, and docking stations.

Laptops have become an essential tool for many people, providing the flexibility to work, study, or entertain themselves from virtually anywhere. Their versatility and portability make them a convenient choice for those who need computing power while on the move.

Types of Laptops

Types of laptops

Laptops come in various types, each designed to cater to specific needs and preferences. Here are some common types of laptops:

Traditional Laptops (Clamshell):

General Purpose: These laptops are versatile and suitable for everyday tasks like web browsing, word processing, and multimedia consumption.

Business Laptops: Designed for professionals, they often feature security enhancements and durable builds.

Entertainment Laptops: These laptops prioritize multimedia features such as high-quality displays and audio for an enhanced entertainment experience.

Student Laptops: Budget-friendly laptops with adequate performance for educational purposes.


Thin and Lightweight: Ultrabooks are known for their slim profiles and lightweight designs, making them highly portable.

High-End: They offer premium features, including fast processors, solid-state drives (SSDs), and sharp displays.

Long Battery Life: Ultrabooks typically have longer battery life, ideal for travelers and professionals on the go.

2-in-1 Laptops (Convertible or Hybrid):

Detachable 2-in-1: The screen detaches from the keyboard, essentially converting the device into a tablet.

Convertible 2-in-1: These laptops have screens that can rotate 360 degrees, allowing them to be used as traditional laptops or tablets.

Touchscreen: 2-in-1 laptops often have touchscreens, making them suitable for both touch and traditional keyboard/mouse input.

Versatile: Ideal for users who want the flexibility of a laptop and a tablet in a single device.

Gaming Laptops:

High-Performance: Gaming laptops are equipped with powerful processors and dedicated graphics cards to handle resource-intensive games.

High Refresh Rate Displays: They often feature high-refresh-rate displays for smoother gaming experiences.

RGB Lighting: Many gaming laptops come with customizable RGB lighting for a visually appealing gaming setup.

Larger Size and Weight: Gaming laptops tend to be larger and heavier than other laptop types due to their performance-oriented components.


Google’s Chrome OS: These laptops run Google’s Chrome operating system, which is designed for web-based tasks and applications.

Affordable: Chromebooks are often budget-friendly options.

Lightweight: They are typically lightweight and have longer battery life.

Ideal for Online Tasks: Chromebooks are suitable for users who primarily use web-based applications like Google Docs and browse the internet.

Workstation Laptops:

Professional Applications: Workstation laptops are designed for professionals who work with resource-intensive applications like 3D modeling and video editing.

High-End Components: They feature powerful processors, dedicated GPUs, and ample RAM.

Durability and Reliability: Built to withstand heavy workloads, they are often durable and reliable.

Rugged Laptops:

Tough Build: Rugged laptops are designed for use in harsh environments and often have military-grade durability certifications.

Water and Dust Resistance: They are resistant to water, dust, and extreme temperatures.

Ideal for Outdoor and Field Work: These laptops are suitable for professionals working in outdoor or industrial settings.

Laptop for Creatives:

Designed for Creativity: These laptops are optimized for content creation tasks like graphic design, video editing, and music production.

High-Resolution Displays: They often have high-resolution, color-accurate displays.

Fast Storage: Creatives require fast storage solutions like SSDs for quick access to large files.

When choosing a laptop, it’s important to consider your specific needs and budget, as different types of laptops excel in different areas. Tailoring your choice to your requirements ensures that you get the best value and performance for your computing needs.

Laptop Components

Laptops are complex devices composed of various hardware components that work together to provide computing power and functionality. Here are the key components found in most laptops:

Central Processing Unit (CPU):

The CPU is the “brain” of the laptop, responsible for executing instructions and performing calculations.

It determines the laptop’s processing speed and performance.

Common CPU manufacturers include Intel and AMD.

Memory (RAM):

RAM (Random Access Memory) is temporary storage that holds data and instructions that the CPU is actively using.

More RAM allows for smoother multitasking and better overall performance.


Laptops use various types of storage, including:

Hard Disk Drive (HDD): Traditional spinning disk storage with higher capacities but slower speeds.

Solid-State Drive (SSD): Faster, more reliable, and energy-efficient storage with faster data access times.

NVMe SSD: An even faster type of SSD that uses the NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express) protocol for ultra-fast data transfer.


The laptop’s display, also known as the screen or monitor, comes in various sizes and resolutions.

Common display technologies include LCD, LED, OLED, and AMOLED.

High-resolution displays provide sharper images and text.

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU):

The GPU, also known as the graphics card, handles graphics-related tasks such as rendering images, videos, and 3D graphics.

Integrated GPUs are part of the CPU, while dedicated GPUs provide higher performance and are used in gaming laptops and workstations.

Keyboard and Touchpad/Trackpad:

Laptops feature a built-in keyboard for text input and a touchpad or trackpad for cursor control.

Some laptops may also include a touchscreen display for additional input options.

Ports and Connectivity:

Laptops come equipped with various ports for connecting external devices, such as USB ports (USB-A, USB-C), HDMI, audio jacks, Ethernet, and SD card readers.

Wireless connectivity includes Wi-Fi and Bluetooth for network and device connectivity.


Laptops have a built-in rechargeable battery that provides power when not connected to an electrical outlet.

Battery life varies depending on usage and laptop specifications.

Operating System (OS):

The OS is the software that manages the laptop’s hardware and allows users to interact with it.

Common laptop operating systems include Windows, macOS (for Apple laptops), and Linux.

Cooling System:

Laptops generate heat during operation, and a cooling system, often consisting of fans and heat sinks, helps dissipate this heat to prevent overheating.

Audio System:

Laptops have built-in speakers and audio hardware for sound output.

Some laptops may have advanced audio systems for improved sound quality.

Webcam and Microphone:

Laptops come with a built-in webcam and microphone for video conferencing, online meetings, and recording audio and video.

Chassis and Build:

The laptop’s chassis or body is its physical structure and can be made from materials like plastic, aluminum, or carbon fiber.

Build quality varies across laptop models, with some featuring rugged or premium designs.

Biometric Sensors:

Some laptops feature biometric sensors like fingerprint readers or facial recognition for secure login and authentication.

These are the essential components you’ll find in most laptops, although specific features and configurations can vary widely depending on the laptop’s intended use, brand, and model. Understanding these components can help you make informed decisions when choosing a laptop that suits your needs.

Operating Systems

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides various services for computer programs. It acts as an intermediary between the user, applications, and the computer’s hardware. Laptops, like other computers, run on operating systems, and there are several popular operating systems used in laptops. Here are some of the most common laptop operating systems:


Windows 10/11: Microsoft’s Windows is one of the most widely used operating systems for laptops and desktops. Windows 10 and Windows 11 are the latest versions (as of my last knowledge update), known for their user-friendly interfaces, extensive software compatibility, and a wide range of hardware support.


macOS: Developed by Apple Inc., macOS is the operating system used exclusively on Apple’s MacBook laptops. It’s known for its sleek and intuitive interface, robust security features, and seamless integration with other Apple devices and services.


Ubuntu: Ubuntu is a popular and user-friendly Linux distribution often chosen by those looking for a free and open-source alternative to Windows or macOS.

Fedora: Fedora is another user-friendly Linux distribution with a focus on innovation and new technologies.

Linux Mint: Linux Mint is known for its ease of use and is a good choice for users transitioning from Windows.

Chrome OS:

Chrome OS: Developed by Google, Chrome OS is a lightweight, cloud-centric operating system primarily used in Chromebooks. It’s designed for web-based tasks and relies heavily on Google’s suite of web applications.

Unix-Based Operating Systems:

BSD: Various BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) operating systems like FreeBSD and OpenBSD are Unix-like systems known for their stability and security features.

macOS: macOS is Unix-based, which means it shares certain core features and commands with Unix-like systems.

Other Operating Systems:

Chromebooks: While Chrome OS is predominant on Chromebooks, some models support running Linux alongside Chrome OS, providing flexibility for developers and power users.

Android: Some 2-in-1 laptops and hybrid devices can run Android as an alternative operating system for tablet-style usage.

The choice of operating system for your laptop depends on your specific needs and preferences. Here are some factors to consider when selecting an operating system:

Software Compatibility: Ensure that the operating system supports the software and applications you need for work or personal use.

User Interface: Consider the user interface and design preferences. Some users prefer the familiarity of Windows, while others prefer the aesthetics of macOS or the simplicity of Chrome OS.

Hardware Compatibility: Check if the operating system is compatible with the specific hardware of your laptop, including drivers and device support.

Security and Privacy: Different operating systems have varying levels of security features and privacy settings.

Ecosystem: If you have other devices or services (e.g., iPhones, iPads, iCloud, Google services), consider an operating system that integrates well with your existing ecosystem.

Ultimately, the choice of operating system is a personal one, and it should align with your workflow and computing needs.

Laptop Specifications

Laptop specifications refer to the technical details and hardware components that make up a laptop. Understanding these specifications is essential when choosing a laptop to ensure it meets your specific needs. Here are the key laptop specifications you should consider:

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU):
  • Brand (e.g., Intel, AMD)
  • Model (e.g., Intel Core i5, AMD Ryzen 7)
  • Clock speed (measured in GHz)
  • Number of cores and threads
  • Memory (RAM):
  • Capacity (e.g., 8GB, 16GB, 32GB)
  • Type (e.g., DDR4)
  • Speed (e.g., 2400MHz)
  • Storage:
  • Type (e.g., HDD, SSD, NVMe SSD)
  • Capacity (e.g., 256GB, 512GB, 1TB)
  • Read and write speeds (for SSDs and NVMe SSDs)
  • Graphics Processing Unit (GPU):
  • Type (e.g., Integrated, Dedicated)
  • Brand and model (e.g., NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1650)
  • VRAM (Video RAM) capacity (for dedicated GPUs)
  • Display:
  • Size (e.g., 13.3 inches, 15.6 inches)
  • Resolution (e.g., Full HD 1920×1080, 4K UHD 3840×2160)
  • Panel type (e.g., IPS, OLED)
  • Refresh rate (e.g., 60Hz, 120Hz, 144Hz, 240Hz)
  • Battery:
  • Capacity (measured in watt-hours, or Wh)
  • Estimated battery life (varies based on usage)
  • Operating System:
  • The pre-installed operating system (e.g., Windows 10, macOS, Chrome OS)
  • Ports and Connectivity:
  • USB ports (e.g., USB-A, USB-C)
  • HDMI port
  • Audio jack
  • Ethernet port (or adapter)
  • Wi-Fi standard (e.g., Wi-Fi 6)
  • Bluetooth version
  • Webcam resolution
  • Keyboard and Touchpad/Trackpad:
  • Keyboard type (e.g., standard, backlit, mechanical)
  • Key travel and layout
  • Precision touchpad or trackpad with multi-touch support
  • Chassis and Build:
  • Material (e.g., aluminum, plastic)
  • Thickness and weight
  • Durability features (e.g., MIL-STD-810G certification)
  • Audio:
  • Speaker quality and configuration
  • Audio enhancements (e.g., Dolby Atmos, Bang & Olufsen)
  • Biometric Sensors:
  • Fingerprint reader
  • Facial recognition (e.g., Windows Hello)
  • Additional Features:
  • 2-in-1 convertible capability
  • Stylus or pen support (for touchscreen devices)
  • Gaming-specific features (e.g., RGB lighting, high refresh rate)

Brand and Model:

The manufacturer and specific laptop model.

These specifications provide an overview of a laptop’s capabilities and performance. When choosing a laptop, it’s important to consider your intended use case. For example, a gaming laptop should have a powerful GPU, high refresh rate display, and adequate cooling, while a lightweight ultrabook may prioritize portability and battery life.

Ultimately, your choice of laptop specifications should align with your computing needs, whether that’s for work, gaming, content creation, or everyday tasks. It’s a good practice to compare different laptop models and configurations to find the one that best suits your requirements and budget.

Laptop Brands

There are several reputable laptop brands known for producing a wide range of laptops, each catering to different preferences and needs. Here are some of the well-known laptop brands:


Known for MacBook laptops running macOS.

Renowned for their premium build quality, sleek design, and integration with other Apple devices and services.

MacBook Air and MacBook Pro are popular models.


Offers a diverse lineup, including XPS laptops for premium users, Inspiron for mainstream users, and gaming laptops under the Alienware brand.

Known for reliable build quality and customer support.

HP (Hewlett-Packard):

Produces a wide range of laptops, from budget-friendly options to premium models.

HP Spectre and HP Envy are known for their sleek design and performance.


Known for its ThinkPad series, which is favored by business professionals for its durability and robust features.

Offers Ideapad and Yoga series laptops for consumers.


Offers a variety of laptops, including ZenBook for premium users and ROG (Republic of Gamers) for gaming enthusiasts.

Known for innovative designs and gaming-focused features.


Provides laptops across different price points, including the Swift series for portability and the Predator series for gaming.

Offers budget-friendly options as well.


Produces Surface laptops and 2-in-1 devices that showcase the capabilities of Windows 10/11.

Known for their premium build and integration with Microsoft’s software and services.

MSI (Micro-Star International):

Specializes in gaming laptops under the MSI and GS series, known for high-performance hardware and gaming-specific features.


Known for producing premium gaming laptops with a focus on design and performance.

Razer Blade laptops are popular among gamers and content creators.


Offers laptops such as the MateBook series, known for their elegant design and portability.

Primarily runs Windows but also has models with Linux-based HarmonyOS.


Known for its LG Gram series of lightweight and portable laptops.

Emphasizes long battery life and portability.


Known for their Satellite and Portégé series, but the brand’s laptop division was sold to Sharp in the past.


Produced the VAIO series of laptops known for their premium design and build quality, but the VAIO brand is now operated independently.


Offers Lifebook laptops, primarily aimed at business users.

Known for their reliability and security features.


Produces laptops under the Galaxy Book series, known for their portability and sleek design.

When choosing a laptop brand, consider factors such as your budget, the specific features you need, and the type of tasks you’ll be performing. Each brand has its strengths and may excel in different areas, so it’s essential to research and compare models within your chosen brand to find the one that best suits your requirements.

Buying Guide

Buying a laptop is an important decision, and it’s essential to choose a device that meets your specific needs and preferences. To help you make an informed purchase, here’s a comprehensive buying guide for laptops:

  1. Determine Your Use Case:

Consider how you’ll primarily use the laptop. Are you a student, professional, gamer, content creator, or casual user? Your intended use will guide your specifications.

  1. Set a Budget:

Decide how much you’re willing to spend. Laptops come in various price ranges, from budget-friendly options to high-end models.

  1. Choose the Right Operating System:

Select an operating system that suits your workflow and software requirements. Common choices include Windows, macOS, Linux, and Chrome OS.

  1. Prioritize Key Specifications:

Focus on critical specifications:

CPU: For general use, a mid-range CPU like an Intel Core i5 or AMD Ryzen 5 is sufficient. For demanding tasks, consider a higher-tier CPU.

RAM: 8GB is the minimum for most users, while 16GB or more is recommended for multitasking and content creation.

Storage: SSDs provide faster performance than HDDs. Consider 256GB or 512GB for most users. Gamers and content creators may need 1TB or more.

GPU: Gamers and content creators should prioritize dedicated GPUs, while casual users can opt for integrated graphics.

  1. Consider Display Preferences:

Screen size: Choose a size that suits your portability and viewing preferences.

Resolution: Higher resolutions (e.g., Full HD, 4K) offer sharper images.

Panel type: IPS panels provide better color accuracy and viewing angles.

Refresh rate: Gamers should look for high-refresh-rate displays for smoother gameplay.

  1. Evaluate Battery Life:

Longer battery life is essential for travelers and on-the-go users. Check reviews and manufacturer estimates for real-world battery performance.

  1. Think About Portability:

Consider the laptop’s size, weight, and build quality. Ultrabooks are lightweight and slim, while gaming laptops tend to be heavier.

  1. Connectivity and Ports:

Ensure the laptop has the necessary ports for your peripherals and accessories.

USB-C ports provide versatility for modern connectivity.

  1. Keyboard and Touchpad Quality:

A comfortable keyboard and responsive touchpad are crucial for productivity.

Backlit keyboards are useful for low-light environments.

  1. Audio and Speakers:

– Good audio quality enhances multimedia experiences. Look for laptops with quality speakers and audio enhancements.

  1. Webcam and Microphone:

– Especially important for video conferencing and online communication.

– Check the resolution and quality of the webcam.

  1. Security Features:

– Biometric sensors like fingerprint readers or facial recognition enhance security.

– Ensure the laptop has robust software security features.

  1. Brand and Customer Support:

– Research the brand’s reputation for build quality and customer service.

– Check warranty and support options.

  1. Read Reviews and Compare Models:

– Read expert and user reviews to get insights into real-world performance and user experiences.

– Compare multiple models to find the best fit for your needs.

  1. Consider Future-Proofing:

– Think about your laptop’s longevity. Consider specifications that will remain relevant for the next few years.

  1. Check for Upgradeability:

– Determine if the laptop allows for upgrading components like RAM and storage.

  1. Purchase from Reputable Retailers:

– Buy from reputable retailers or directly from the manufacturer to ensure warranty coverage and authenticity.

  1. Accessories and Peripherals:

– Don’t forget to budget for necessary accessories like a laptop bag, external mouse, and any specific peripherals you need.

By following this buying guide and thoroughly researching your options, you can select a laptop that best fits your requirements and provides excellent value for your investment.

Maintenance and Care

Proper maintenance and care are essential to ensure your laptop continues to perform well and has a long lifespan. Here are some tips and guidelines for maintaining and caring for your laptop:

  1. Keep It Clean:

Regularly clean the laptop’s exterior, keyboard, and screen to prevent dust, dirt, and grime buildup.

Use a microfiber cloth or screen cleaning solution for the screen.

Compressed air can help remove dust from the keyboard and internal components.

  1. Protect Against Physical Damage:

Invest in a protective laptop case or sleeve to shield it from scratches and minor impacts during transport.

Avoid placing heavy objects on the laptop or closing it with objects like pens or headphones on the keyboard.

  1. Use a Cooling Pad:

Laptops can overheat, affecting performance and lifespan. Consider using a cooling pad to help dissipate heat during extended use.

  1. Store Properly:

When not in use, store the laptop in a cool, dry place, and avoid exposing it to extreme temperatures, humidity, or direct sunlight.

  1. Manage Cables:

Be mindful of cables and peripherals connected to the laptop. Avoid pulling on them to prevent damage to ports or connectors.

  1. Battery Care:

Calibrate your laptop’s battery occasionally (once every few months) by fully charging and discharging it to maintain accurate battery life estimates.

Avoid extreme temperatures and store the laptop with a partially charged battery if it will be unused for an extended period.

  1. Software Maintenance:

Keep your operating system, drivers, and software up to date with regular updates and patches to enhance security and performance.

Install reputable antivirus and anti-malware software to protect against threats.

  1. Backup Your Data:

Regularly back up your important files and data to an external storage device or a cloud service to prevent data loss in case of hardware failure or accidents.

  1. Avoid Eating and Drinking Near the Laptop:

Spills and crumbs can damage the keyboard, touchpad, and internal components. Avoid eating or drinking while using the laptop.

  1. Be Gentle with the Screen:

– Avoid pressing too hard on the screen or using sharp objects that can scratch it.

– When closing the laptop, avoid putting pressure on the screen; close it gently from the center.

  1. Keep Software Clean:

– Uninstall unnecessary software and applications to free up storage space and reduce system clutter.

  1. Use a Surge Protector:

– When plugging in your laptop, consider using a surge protector to safeguard it against power surges and voltage fluctuations.

  1. Handle with Care:

– When carrying your laptop, hold it by the base, not the screen, to prevent stress on the hinges.

– Avoid picking up the laptop by the screen.

  1. Regularly Update and Maintain Backup: Ensure that your backup solutions are regularly updated and maintained so that you can recover your data in case of emergencies.
  2. Professional Servicing:

– If you encounter hardware issues or problems you can’t resolve, consider taking your laptop to a qualified technician or the manufacturer’s service center for repairs and maintenance.


Troubleshooting laptop issues is a common task that users may encounter from time to time. Here’s a step-by-step guide to help you diagnose and resolve common laptop problems:

  1. Identify the Problem:

Begin by clearly identifying the issue or symptom your laptop is experiencing. Is it a software problem, hardware issue, or something else?

  1. Restart Your Laptop:

Sometimes, a simple restart can resolve software glitches or temporary issues. Turn off your laptop, wait a few seconds, and then turn it back on.

  1. Check for Error Messages:

Pay attention to any error messages or codes displayed on the screen, as they can provide valuable information about the problem.

  1. Disconnect External Devices:

If you have external devices (e.g., USB drives, external hard drives) connected, disconnect them to see if the issue is related to these peripherals.

  1. Update Software:

Ensure your operating system, drivers, and software are up to date. Outdated software can lead to compatibility issues and vulnerabilities.

Perform system updates and driver updates as needed.

  1. Scan for Malware and Viruses:

Use reputable antivirus and anti-malware software to scan your laptop for threats.

Remove any detected malware or viruses and quarantine affected files.

  1. Check for Available Storage:

Insufficient storage space can cause performance problems. Ensure you have enough free space on your hard drive or SSD.

  1. Monitor CPU and RAM Usage:

Use the Task Manager (Windows) or Activity Monitor (macOS) to check CPU and RAM usage.

Identify and close any resource-intensive processes or applications.

  1. Test in Safe Mode:

Boot your laptop into Safe Mode (usually by pressing F8 or Shift while booting) to see if the issue persists. Safe Mode loads only essential drivers and can help identify software-related problems.

  1. Check for Overheating:

– Overheating can lead to performance issues or shutdowns. Ensure your laptop’s cooling system is clean and functioning correctly.

– Use a cooling pad if necessary.

  1. Test External Connections:

– If you’re experiencing connectivity issues (e.g., Wi-Fi problems), check your network settings and try connecting to different networks or using an Ethernet cable.

  1. Backup Your Data:

– If your laptop is experiencing severe issues or data corruption, back up your important files and data immediately.

  1. Run Hardware Diagnostics:

– Many laptops have built-in diagnostics tools that can help identify hardware problems.

– Check your laptop’s user manual or manufacturer’s website for instructions on how to run hardware diagnostics.

  1. Seek Online Resources:

– Consult online forums, community boards, and official support websites for your laptop’s brand and model to find solutions to common issues.

  1. Contact Customer Support:

– If you’re unable to resolve the issue on your own, reach out to the laptop manufacturer’s customer support or a qualified technician for assistance.

  1. Consider Professional Repair:

– If you suspect a hardware problem (e.g., a faulty hard drive, screen, or motherboard), it may be necessary to seek professional repair services.


In conclusion, laptops have become indispensable tools in our modern world, providing us with the flexibility to work, study, create, and connect with others from virtually anywhere.

In this comprehensive guide, we’ve covered a wide range of topics related to laptops, from understanding what laptops are and the different types available to exploring their key components, operating systems, specifications, and popular laptop brands.

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